Jazz From Lincoln Center

The Latin Duke

Written by Neil Tesser

(c) and (p) Jazz From Lincoln Center, 1999, 2002, all rights reserved


1) Music: tk

2) Vox: Krin Gabbard (KG master int. excerpt at 0:00)
"//We give Dizzy Gillespie a lot of credit in the late '40s for mixing
the Latin tinge in there but no one did it better than Ellington//."


Nat Hentoff (NH master int. excerpt at :30)
"//Ellington because he listened and was curious about all kinds of
sounds, would naturally try and fall into that kind of groove. // Dizzy
did it beautifully well with Machito but // you could tell where that
came from. With Duke, it all became infused with his way of thinking and
listening//. As always, he transformed whatever he took into
Ellingtonia." (JH note: I'm not aware of Gillespie playing with Machito
on a regular basis -- Hentoff prob. means Chano Pozo.)


3) Bradley: (TK rework this)

WHEN YOU INVESTIGATE THE HISTORY OF JAZZ, DUKE ELLINGTON'S FINGERPRINTS
ARE EVERYWHERE. TAKE LATIN JAZZ. TODAY'S INTEREST IN LATIN JAZZ AND
IN "WORLD MUSIC" IN GENERAL GOES BACK TO DUKE'S LATIN EXPERIMENTS
OF THE EARLY '30S, (note: optional sentence close) ALMOST TWO DECADES
BEFORE TRUMPETER DIZZY GILLESPIE'S SO-CALLED "CU-BOP" FUSION (tk check).
IN THE BEGINNING, ELLINGTON'S PUERTO RICAN TROMBONIST JUAN TIZOL
SERVED AS HIS MUSICAL GUIDE. LATER, IN THE '60S AND EARLY '70S, THE
BAND'S WORLD TRAVELS PROVIDED ANOTHER INSPIRATION FOR A DISTINCTLY DUCAL
BRAND OF LATIN JAZZ.

WYNTON MARSALIS AND THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA REVISIT THE
HIGHLIGHTS FROM ELLINGTON'S LONG LATIN ADVENTURE ON "THE LATIN DUKE" --
THIS EDITION OF JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER. I'M ED BRADLEY.

4) Music: (fades)


5) Vox: Wynton Marsalis (WM int., recent one, excerpt at :18)
"Well the Spanish tinge is what Jelly called it.//

6) Bradley:

TRUMPETER WYNTON MARSALIS

7) Vox: Wynton Marsalis (WM int., recent one, excerpt at :18)
"It's an added spice and it's an important part of our music.// And Duke
understands that it was a way to get variety and to utilize the rhythm
section in a different way//."

8) Bradley:

RHYTHMS FROM LATIN AMERICA, ESPECIALLY FROM THE CARIBBEAN, FOUND THEIR
WAY INTO THE ORIGINAL NEW ORLEANS JAZZ MIX -- JELLY ROLL MORTON FAMOUSLY
CALLED IT "THE SPANISH TINGE." BUT IN 1930 WHEN NORTH AMERICANS GOT A
TASTE OF THE PURE CUBAN PRODUCT -- A RECORDING BY A HAVANA BAND OF THE
TUNE "EL MANISERO" OR "THE PEANUT VENDOR" -- THEY INCITED THE FIRST U.S.
LATIN-MUSIC CRAZE.

DUKE ELLINGTON WASN'T FAR BEHIND. A YEAR LATER, HE HAD A HIT WITH HIS
ARRANGEMENT OF "THE PEANUT VENDOR." FROM THE McCARTER THEATER IN
PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY, HERE IS THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA WITH
THEIR TAKE ON DUKE'S TAKE ON THE CUBAN STANDARD, "THE PEANUT VENDOR."


9) Music: The Peanut Vendor (Simon) (5:03) (Princeton concert 5/10/99)


10) Bradley:

THAT WAS MOISES SIMON'S "THE PEANUT VENDOR," PERFORMED BY THE LINCOLN
CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA. WYNTON MARSALIS WAS ON TRUMPET (note: is that
right?), FAREED BARON ON PIANO AND HERLIN RILEY ON DRUMS.

THIS IS JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER. I'M ED BRADLEY.

WITH "THE PEANUT VENDOR," ELLINGTON WAS REACTING TO LATIN MUSIC. FAST
FORWARD ALMOST A DECADE LATER AND IT'S DUKE TAKING THE INITIATIVE,
BORROWING A LATIN RHYTHMIC FEEL TO CREATE AN IDENTIFIABLY ELLINGTONIAN
COMPOSITIONAL MOOD.

IN A WAY, DUKE HAD BEEN PREPARING FOR THIS KIND OF FUSION SINCE THE
LATE '20S WHEN HE AND HIS MEN WERE THE HOUSE BAND AT THE HARLEM
NIGHTCLUB, THE COTTON CLUB. THERE THEY INVENTED A COLORFUL,
PSEUDO-AFRICAN STYLE SIMPLY TO PUT ON A GOOD SHOW.


11) Vox: Mark Tucker (MT master int. excerpt at :45)
"//He would draw upon // some of the so-called 'jungle' style elements
from his Cotton Club period and bring them to the Latin-style pieces to
create this illusion of some kind of exotic, far-away locale//


12) Bradley:

ELLINGTON SCHOLAR MARK TUCKER


13) Vox: Mark Tucker (MT master int. excerpt at 1:00)

(note: tricky edit here) "//For example // the Juan Tizol/Ellington
pieces from the late '30s, // Caravan has a sense of a kind of
mysterious, veiled world and uses some of the muted, brass sounds that
Ellington had gotten interested in// especially at the Cotton Club. I
think the possibilities of having that different rhythmic underpinning
together with allowing him to explore these slightly unconventional and
more probing tone colors came with the Latin side of Ellington."


14) Bradley:

FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, HERE IS THE LCJO WITH THEIR VERSION OF A 1937
(TK CHECK) LATIN DUKE TUNE THAT BECAME AN ELLINGTON CLASSIC, "CARAVAN."


15) Music: Caravan (Tizol/Ellington) (3:40) (from International Duke
concert, 5/10/97 Alice Tully Hall)


16) Bradley:

"CARAVAN" BY THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA. TK WAS ON TRUMPET,
REGINALD VEAL ON BASS AND LEWIS NASH ON DRUMS. ON BARITONE SAXOPHONE
(note: please check that it's not tenor), JOE TEMPERLEY TOOK THE
LATIN-SOUNDING SOLO.

(note: from here thru #19 is optional) AS A COMPOSER ELLINGTON ONLY
KNEW HOW TO BE TRUE TO HIMSELF. WHEN HE WROTE HIS LATIN PIECES, HE
DIDN'T WORRY ABOUT FOLLOWING WHAT MUSICIANS CALL THE CLAVE, THE 2-3 OR
3-2 BEAT THAT'S AT THE HEART OF CARIBBEAN LATIN MUSIC.


17) Vox: David Berger (DB int. 6/20/97 at 3:15)
"That meant nothing to him although for a Latin American player, that's
everything.


18) Bradley:

ARRANGER AND ELLINGTON AUTHORITY DAVID BERGER


19) Vox: David Berger (DB int. 6/20/97 at 3:22)

"But for Ellington, it was just // impressions."


20) Bradley:

FOR ELLINGTON, LATIN WAS JUST ONE FLAVOR HE USED IN HIS MOOD PIECES. IN
"CARAVAN," FOR EXAMPLE, THE SINUOUS MAIN MELODY IS MEANT TO CONJURE OF
AN MIDDLE-EASTERN DESERT SCENE. BUT THE SYNCOPATED RHYTHMS AND THE TK
(note: listen to original for another example) HAVE A KIND OF LATIN
FEEL, DUE IN LARGE MEASURE TO THE MAN WHO WROTE THE TUNE -- JUAN TIZOL.

TIZOL CAME FROM A PROMINENT SAN JUAN MUSICAL FAMILY. HE CAME TO THE
U.S. IN TK DATE AND BY 1929 HAD JOINED THE ELLINGTON BAND AS A VALVE
TROMBONIST. HE WAS NEVER MUCH OF A JAZZ IMPROVISER BUT HIS CLASSICAL
CHOPS AND HIS FLAIR FOR WRITING LATINISH MOOD PIECES WERE A UNIQUE
ADDITION FOR ALMOST TWENTY YEARS.

THE ELLINGTON/TIZOL COLLABORATION REALLY TOOK OFF WITH THE 1940
COMPOSITION, "CONGA BRAVA." TIZOL PROBABLY PROVIDED MOST OF THE MELODIC
MATERIAL BUT IT'S ELLINGTON'S GENIUS FOR COMBINING SEEMINGLY UNRELATED
SWING AND LATIN SECTIONS THAT MAKES THE PIECE.


21) Vox: Mark Tucker (MT master int. excerpt at 4:35)
"I think Conga Brava in its three short minutes has in some way as much
music as sometimes a thirty minute symphony might have."


22) Bradley:

MARK TUCKER


23) Vox: Mark Tucker (MT int. excerpt at 4:45)
"Because you get this rush of events, you get this rhythmic energy// of
the underlying groove but then you have this Ben Webster solo that comes
out of nowhere and you have these trumpets suddenly exploding.//
Ellington's imagination is just on fire there."


24) Bradley:

FROM THE TK HALL IN AUSTIN, TEXAS, HERE IS THE LCJO WITH "CONGA BRAVA."
(JH note: too bad band doesn't play it better)


25) Music: Conga Brava (Tizol/Ellington) (3:21)


26) Bradley:

THAT WAS "CONGA BRAVA" BY THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA. TROMBONIST
WAYNE GOODMAN TOOK THE PART OF JUAN TIZOL AND WALTER BLANDING JR.
REPRISED (tk check original) BEN WEBSTER'S FAMOUS TENOR SAX SOLO.

ELLINGTON AND TIZOL TEAMED UP LATER IN 1940 FOR ANOTHER LATIN
SHOW-STOPPER, "THE FLAMING SWORD." THE PIECE OPENS WITH A ROYAL FANFARE
BEFITTING A DUKE. THEN IT MOVES INTO THE PERCUSSIVE RHYTHMS THAT
CONJURE UP A BALLROOM OF HIP-SWIVELLING DANCERS. (note: I need to check
the original.)

FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, HERE IS "THE FLAMING SWORD."


27) Music: The Flaming Sword (Tizol/Ellington) (4:07) (Alice Tully
concert 9/12/98)


28) Bradley:

JUAN TIZOL AND DUKE ELLINGTON'S "THE FLAMING SWORD," PERFORMED BY
WYNTON MARSALIS AND THE LCJO. WES ANDERSON WAS ON ALTO SAX, MARCUS
PRINTUP ON TRUMPET, AND WYCLIFFE GORDON ON TROMBONE AND HERLIN RILEY ON
DRUMS AND PERCUSSION.

VIRTUALLY EVERYONE CONNECTED WITH JAZZ PUTS ELLINGTON ON A PEDESTAL.
BUT NOT EVERYONE LOVES THE LATIN DUKE. HERE IS THE NOTED COMPOSER AND
EDUCATOR GUNTHER SCHULLER WHO WAS ALSO A FRIEND OF ELLINGTON'S.


29) Vox: Gunther Schuller (GS master interview excerpt at 1:30)
"There is a sense in those Latinate pieces that there is some, shall we
say, outside influence that isn't very personal to Ellington himself but
which he manages to absorb and use in a very beautiful and intelligent
way//."


30) Bradley:

ELLINGTON SEIZED ON THE IDEA OF LATIN MUSIC TO PRODUCE SOME OF HIS
FINEST COMPOSITIONS LIKE "CARAVAN" AND "CONGA BRAVA." AND HE WAS ALSO
INSPIRED TO WRITE SOME LESS THAN IMMORTAL PIECES THAT HAVE THEIR OWN
CHARM. THEY WERE PRETTY OR THEY WERE LIVELY AND THEY WERE ALWAYS A
MAGNET FOR SERIOUS DANCERS.


31) Vox: Mark Tucker (MT master int. excerpt at 3:50)
"// Ellington was able to turn to all kinds of material that in the
hands of some other band leader, composer might seem corny or
sentimental..."


32) Bradley:

MARK TUCKER


33) Vox: Mark Tucker (MT master int. excerpt at 3:58)
"and he'd find a way through his scoring to make it musically
interesting and viable. And even if it was overly sentimental, I think
that was OK with Ellington too."


34) Bradley:

"MOON OVER CUBA" IS A 1941 JUAN TIZOL TUNE THAT PROBABLY FALLS IN THE
SENTIMENTAL CATEGORY. FILLING TIZOL'S SHOES, TROMBONIST WAYNE GOODMAN
TURNS IT INTO A MUSICAL PLEASURE. FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, "MOON OVER
CUBA."


35) Music: Moon Over Cuba (Tizol) (4:02) (International Ellington
concert)


36) Bradley:

"MOON OVER CUBA," THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA. WAYNE GOODMAN WAS
ON TROMBONE, SHERMAN IRBY, ALTO SAXOPHONE.


37) Midbreak Music: TK


38) Bradley:
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YOU'RE LISTENING TO JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER. I'M ED BRADLEY.


[Midbreak @ tk -- (incl. :10 as bed for local stations ID's)]

[music fades to actuality]


39).Vox: Mark Tucker (MT master int. excerpt at 5:30)
"//Ellington never pretended in his geographically inspired pieces to be
using traditional sources//. (note: skip forward about :20) And I think
// Tourist Point of View sums it up. There's a sense of an American who
is home anymore, suddenly confronted with this completely different
landscape and completely different sounds and yet is still American so
you get this interesting fusion between the kind of Ellington
Orchestra// that we know already with this kind of mysterious,
unfamiliar tonal atmosphere that's all around him."


40) Bradley:

IN THE '30S AND '40S, LATIN MUSIC CAME TO ELLINGTON, IN THE PERSON OF
JUAN TIZOL AND IN THE WAVES OF LATIN MUSIC THAT PERIODICALLY SWEPT THE
U.S. IN HIS LAST TWO DECADES, THE '60S AND THE '70S, DUKE WENT TO THE
EXOTIC SOURCE. ELLINGTON HAD BECOME A HIGH-FLYING JAZZ AMBASSADOR,
TRAVELLING THE WORLD, INCLUDING A TOUR OF LATIN AMERICA IN 1968 THAT
WOULD RESULT IN HIS 1970 "LATIN AMERICAN SUITE."

BUT AS MARK TUCKER EXPLAINS IT, DUKE ALWAYS RETAINED HIS "TOURIST POINT
OF VIEW." THAT'S ALSO THE TITLE OF THE OVERTURE TO HIS MOST FAMOUS
EXTENDED TRAVEL PIECE, "THE FAR EAST SUITE." IN THAT OVERTURE, DUKE HITS
US WITH A SNAKE-CHARMER MELODY (note: listen to original) THAT EVOKES
THE EAST. BUT THE RHYTHMS HAVE A SYNCOPATED LATIN FEEL -- DUKE'S USE OF
STATIC GROOVES RECALLS THE "MONTUNO VAMPS" THAT BEGIN MANY MODERN LATIN
JAZZ PIECES. (note: I'm fishing here Paul, need your imput.)

FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, HERE IS THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA WITH
"TOURIST POINT OF VIEW."


41) Music: Tourist Point of View (Ellington) (7:15) (International
Duke concert)


42) Bradley:

THE LCJO AND "TOURIST POINT OF VIEW." STEPHEN RILEY WAS ON TENOR SAX,
JOE TEMPERLEY ON BARITONE SAX AND ROGER INGRAM ON HIGH-NOTE TRUMPET.

FOR ALL OF HIS GLOBE-TROTTING, THE BIGGEST JOURNEY DUKE ELLINGTON EVER
TOOK WAS INSIDE HIS OWN MUSICAL IMAGINATION. ESPECIALLY IN HIS TRAVEL
PIECES, HE RADICALLY SIMPLIFIED HIS JAZZ LANGUAGE. HE OFTEN SUBSTITUTED
GROOVES IN PLACE OF CLASSIC SWING AND LONG IMPROVISATIONS ON SCALES OR
MODES INSTEAD OF STEADY CHORD CHANGES.

ELLINGTON WROTE THE MUSIC FOR THE 1963 ALBUM "AFRO-BOSSA" [BOW-sa]
BEFORE HE'D EVER SET FOOT IN LATIN AMERICA. THE TUNE "BONGA" FROM
"AFRO-BOSSA" WAS A SHOWCASE FOR DUKE'S NEW LATIN-FLAVORED PRIMITIVISM.

DAVID BERGER ARRANGED "BONGA" FOR THE LCJO.

(alt.) WYNTON MARSALIS.


43) Vox: David Berger (DB int. 6/20/97 at 11:30)
"//It's a blues with an ostinato, a repetitive pattern that happens in
the saxophones and it has this Latin beat that goes along.// You don't
really find blues in Latin music. This is just something Ellington said,
'wouldn't it be fun to put a // latin groove underneath this //
long-form blues."


43) Alt Vox (since we've already used above on Inter. Duke) Wynton
Marsalis (WM pre-Inter. Duke concert talk at 4:00)
"//It's the perfect example of a groove. The bass is good -- bing bi
ding (note: cut some of the scat)//. Now the drums play a groove that
connects with ostinato. In this case, on the cymbals. It's ting ting
(note: cut some scat). Now what Duke does,// he orchestrates the band
around this groove."


44) Bradley:

FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, "BONGA."


45) Music: Bonga (Ellington) (5:32) (International Duke concert)


46) Bradley:

"BONGA" FROM ELLINGTON'S "AFRO-BOSSA" ALBUM. THE SOLOISTS WERE RYAN
KISOR ON TRUMPET, WESS ANDERSON ON ALTO SAX AND BILL EASILY ON CLARINET.
THE RHYTHM SECTION WAS RENEE ROSNES ON PIANO, REGINALD VEAL ON BASS AND
LEWIS NASH ON DRUMS.

THE TITLE PIECE FROM "AFRO-BOSSA" IS AN OMINOUS MOOD PIECE THAT
COMBINES DUKE'S NEW SPARE STYLE WITH THE "TALKING" TRUMPETS AND
TROMBONES (note: check) THAT HAVEN'T CHANGED MUCH FROM HIS "JUNGLE
MUSIC" DAYS AT THE COTTON CLUB. THE POUNDING BONGOS THAT OPEN THE PIECE
(note: check that it's not congas) LET YOU KNOW YOU'RE SOMEWHERE SOUTH
OF THE BORDER.

(note: I've got a Berger vox on Afro-Bossa from the old International
Duke interview but I didn't transcribe it originally and the tape you
sent me cuts off before it arrives at around 23:00 so if we want a vox
here, you'll have to get me that tape.)

FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA WITH
"AFRO-BOSSA."


47) Music: Afro-Bossa (Ellington) (4:29) (International Duke)


48) Bradley:

THE TITLE TUNE FROM ELLINGTON'S "AFRO-BOSSA." ON TRUMPET, RYAN KISOR
(note: please check log), ON BASS REGINALD VEAL, ON PERCUSSION HERLIN
RILEY. (note: was there an extra percussionist on these tunes or did
Herlin do it all?)

WE'LL LEAVE OFF THE INTENSITIES OF DUKE'S MODERNIST "JUNGLE MUSIC" FOR
ONE OF THE LIGHTER AND MORE CURIOUS PIECES IN THE LATIN DUKE SONGBOOK.
THE TUNE "ISLAND VIRGIN," FROM ELLINGTON AND BILLY STRAYHORN'S 1965
"VIRGIN ISLANDS SUITE" IS ACTUALLY BASED ON THE CHORD CHANGES OF A NEW
ORLEANS JAZZ CHESTNUT, "TIGER RAG." THE LATINISH MAIN MELODY WOULDN'T
SOUND OUT OF PLACE IN A COFFEE COMMERCIAL.


49) Vox: David Berger (DB int. 6/20/97 at 32:00)
"//Here we are in the 1960s with a Tiger Rag that is so well-disguised
that very few people would even realize it's Tiger Rag."


50) Bradley:

DAVID BERGER WROTE THE ARRANGEMENT.


51) Vox: David Berger (DB int. 6/20/97 at 32:10)
"//It's kind of an interesting combination of this New Orleans form with
a sort of a calypso beat.// It's kinda got the best of both worlds."


52) Bradley:

IN THE HANDS OF A DUKE ELLINGTON, JELLY ROLL MORTON'S "SPANISH TINGE"
CAN BE USED TO TIE TOGETHER ANY NUMBER OF JAZZ ERAS AND STYLES.

FROM ALICE TULLY HALL, HERE IS THE LCJO WITH "ISLAND VIRGIN."


53) Music: Island Virgin (Ellington/Strayhorn) (5:57)


54) Bradley:

"ISLAND VIRGIN," FROM "THE VIRGIN ISLANDS SUITE," WRITTEN BY DUKE
ELLINGTON AND HIS CO-COMPOSER, BILLY STRAYHORN.

THIS IS JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER. I'M ED BRADLEY.

DUKE ELLINGTON'S LAST GREAT LATIN-FLAVORED PIECE WAS WRITTEN ON THE
ROAD DURING THE FIRST OF HIS TWO TOURS (tk check) OF LATIN AMERICA, IN
1968. "I'M GIVING UP A LOT OF MY VIRGINITY ON THIS TRIP," HE TOLD HIS
BIOGRAPHER STANLEY DANCE ON THE PLANE HEADING SOUTH. (note: from Dance's
liner notes to L.A. Suite) BUT THERE WASN'T MUCH CHANCE THAT AT THAT
LATE DATE, ELLINGTON WAS GOING TO GO NATIVE. HIS COMPOSITION, "OCLUPACA"
-- THAT'S "ACAPULCO" SPELLED BACKWARDS -- IS VINTAGE "LATIN DUKE," THAT
IS TO SAY, MORE DUKE THAN LATIN, MORE SWING AND BLUES THAN ANYTHING
ELSE.

(note: I used this vox on Inter. Duke show)


55) Vox: David Berger (DB int. at 6/20/97 at 36:00)
"It's got a Latin ostinato pattern and then goes into swing."


56) Bradley:

DAVID BERGER


57) Vox: David Berger (DB int. at 6/20/97 at 36:08)
"The problem with that very often is that it sounds contrived.// It just
sounds artificial when you switch. This is a case where// it feels
great when you switch.// (note: skip couple sentences) The ostinato, the
repetitiveness of it, it keeps holding us there and holding us there and
then we get to that blues, especially when we get to that IV chord, it
just gives us that release."


58) Bradley:

WE'LL CLOSE OUR PROGRAM WITH YOUNG TENORIST STEPHEN RILEY SOARING ON
THE PAUL GONSALVES SOLO PART, THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA'S
VERSION OF "OCLUPACA."


59) Music: Oclupaca (Ellington) (8:14) (International Duke)


60) Bradley:

TENORIST STEPHEN RILEY PUSHING THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA ON
"OCLUPACA," FROM "THE LATIN AMERICAN SUITE." SHERMAN IRBY WAS ON ALTO
SAX, MARCUS PRINTUP ON TRUMPET.


61) Music: TK

62) Bradley: (Credits)

FOR THIS "LATIN DUKE" PROGRAM, THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA
INCLUDED ON TRUMPET, WYNTON MARSALIS, MARCUS PRINTUP AND RYAN KISOR; ON
TROMBONE, WYCLIFFE GORDON, RONALD WESTRAY AND WAYNE GOODMAN; ON ALTO
SAXOPHONE, WES ANDERSON AND SHERMAN IRBY; ON TENOR SAX, STEPHEN RILEY,
WALTER BLANDING JR., AND TK; ON CLARINET, VICTOR GOINES AND ON BARITONE
SAXOPHONE, JOE TEMPERLEY; ON PIANO, RENEE ROSNES AND FAREED BARON
(SP.?); ON BASS, REGINALD VEAL AND RODNEY WHITTAKER; AND HERLIN RILEY
AND LEWIS NASH ON DRUMS. (TK CHECK LIST)

JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER IS PRODUCED BY JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER AND
MURRAY STREET ENTERPRISE NEW YORK. THIS PROGRAM WAS WRITTEN BY JOSEPH HOOPER
AND EDITED BY LAUREN KRENZEL. OUR SENIOR PRODUCER IS STEVE RATHE.
THE RECORDINGS WERE MIXED BY EDWARD HABER AND MICHAEL DeMARK, AND
DIGITAL POST PRODUCTION BY DAVID GOREN AT STEVEN ERICKSON'S.
{alt} DIGITAL POST PRODUCTION BY STEVEN ERICKSON.
{alt} DIGITAL POST PRODUCTION BY ASSOCIATE PRODUCER PAUL CHUFFO.

OUR ASSOCIATE PRODUCER IS PAUL CHUFFO.

THE PRODUCTION TEAM INCLUDES GWENDOLYN DEAN, ROB GRADER, ANDREW
ROSENBLUM, TRACEY PULLO, AND LARRY JOSEPHSON.

THANKS TO APRIL SMITH, CHRISTA TETER, SUSAN RADIN, AND THE RADIO
FOUNDATION.

THE EXECUTIVE PRODUCER AND DIRECTOR OF JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER IS ROB
GIBSON. THE ARTISTIC DIRECTOR IS WYNTON MARSALIS.

I'M ED BRADLEY. THIS IS N-P-R, NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO.