Jazz From Lincoln Center

Con Alma

Final Draft, November 14, 1998

by Paul Chuffo

(c) & (p) 1998 Murray Street Productions and Jazz at Lincoln Center, all rights reserved

 

1) Music: Azulito, 9/12/98 concert, from melody

 

2) Vox: Ray Santos

"Mario and Machito, I would say, were the first band to actually get into that groove, of combining the jazz solos with the Afro-Cuban rhythms and actually getting arrangements to go with that beat and to lean over to that jazz crowd."

 

Vox: Steve Berrios

"That music doesn’t call for being so precise on individual notes, but you have to be precise in the general feeling of the music. // It’s one thing reading out the notes and everything’s written out well, but just to make it alive, and speak that language, it takes more than what’s written on the paper"

 

3) Bradley:

‘MACHITO’ WAS KNOWN AS "THE DUKE ELLINGTON OF AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ." IN THE 1940'S, HE LEAD NEW YORK’S TOP "LATIN" DANCE BAND --- BUT HE ALSO FORGED A NEW MUSIC FROM AFRO-CUBAN RHYTHMS AND JAZZ.

THE SOPHISTICATION AND ENERGY OF THAT COMBINATION TOOK HIS BAND FROM THE DANCE HALL TO THE CONCERT HALL. AND LIKE DUKE ELLINGTON, MACHITO’S MUSIC WAS ALWAYS MADE "CON ALMA" --- WITH SOUL.

WE’LL EXPLORE THE LEGACY OF MACHITO, DIZZY GILLESPIE, AND AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ, AS CHICO O’FARRILL AND RAY SANTOS LEAD THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA --- "CON ALMA." ON THIS EDITION OF JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER. I’M ED BRADLEY.

 

4) Music: Tanga, Machito Orchestra from Original Mambo Kings CD

 

5) Bradley:

FRANK ‘MACHITO’ GRILLO [gr-EE-oh] WAS A POPULAR SINGER IN CUBA IN THE 1930'S. AT THE END OF THAT DECADE, HE FOLLOWED HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW MARIO BAUZA TO NEW YORK, WHERE HE FORMED A LATIN DANCE BAND WITH BAUZA AS MUSICAL DIRECTOR. BUT MACHITO AND BAUZA WERE NOT SATISFIED PLAYING JUST TYPICAL LATIN BOLEROS AND RUMBAS. SO BAUZA STARTED ADDING JAZZ ELEMENTS FROM THE BIG BAND VOCABULARY HE ACQUIRED PLAYING TRUMPET WITH CAB CALLOWAY AND CHICK WEBB.

THIS MUSICAL ALCHEMY LED BAUZA TO THE FIRST TUNE RECOGNIZED AS "LATIN JAZZ" --- HIS 1943 "TANGA."[tahn-GAH]

 

6) Vox: Arturo O’Farrill, Jr.

"That’s like an oral tradition, that piece// it grew over the years, like it was a jam, and then different sections got added, and it just grew like that into an arrangement."

 

 

7) Bradley:

PIANIST ARTURO O’FARRILL, JR.

 

 

 

 

8) Vox: Arturo O’Farrill, Jr. (continued)

"I can’t think of many pieces in the jazz repertoire,// in the big band repertoire, that involve no// written music. And that played over 50 years developed into a real piece."

 

 

9) Bradley:

"TANGA" TRADITIONALLY STARTS WITH A PIANO RIFF AND A SIMPLE MELODY. THE REST OF THE ARRANGEMENT DEPENDS ON THE RHYTHMIC IMAGINATION OF THE MUSICIANS PLAYING IT.

AT ALICE TULLY HALL, THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA PLAYS SOME OF MARIO BAUZA’S ORIGINAL RIFFS AND MAKES UP A FEW OF THEIR OWN.

HERE’S "TANGA."

 

10) Music: Tanga (Bauza), from 9/12/98 concert, 7:49

 

11) Bradley:

AN IMPROVISED ARRANGEMENT OF MARIO BAUZA’S "TANGA." WYNTON MARSALIS WAS THE SINGER, ARTURO O’FARRILL, JR. PLAYED PIANO, WITH TED NASH ON SOPRANO SAX AND VICTOR GOINES ON TENOR.

MAJOR SUPPORT FOR JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER IS PROVIDED BY DISCOVER CARD. IT PAYS TO DISCOVER.

 

12) Music: Machito dance chart

 

13) Bradley:

MOST NIGHTS, MACHITO AND HIS AFRO-CUBANS WERE THE HOUSE BAND AT NEW YORK’S PALLADIUM BALLROOM, SPURRING DANCERS ON WITH THE RHYTHMS OF CHA-CHA’S, SON MONTUNOS [sohn - mon-TOO-knows] AND, ESPECIALLY, MAMBOS.

JAZZ MELODIES OFTEN FIT COMFORTABLY INTO THE MAMBO BEAT. WITH THEIR FORCEFUL PERCUSSION SECTIONS AND JAZZ HARMONIES, MAMBOS WERE PERFECT FOR JAZZ SOLOISTS TO TRY THEIR HAND AT PLAYING LATIN MUSIC.

RAY SANTOS DID JUST THAT WITH A SONG BY JAZZ PIANIST RAY BRYANT. WHEN SANTOS JOINED THE MACHITO BAND IN 1956, HE ADAPTED BRYANT’S "CUBAN FANTASY" TO THE MAMBO STYLE.

FOUR DECADES LATER, SANTOS CONDUCTS THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA ON "CUBAN FANTASY."

 

14) Music: Cuban Fantasy, 9/12/98 concert, 5:56

 

 

 

15) Bradley:

RAY SANTOS’ ARRANGEMENT OF RAY BRYANT’S "CUBAN FANTASY." THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA FEATURED JOE TEMPERLEY ON BARITONE SAX, RYAN KISOR ON TRUMPET AND ARTURO O’FARRILL, JR. ON PIANO.

BY 1950, THE MACHITO BIG BAND, WITH ITS COMBINATION OF AFRO-CUBAN RHYTHM AND JAZZ, WAS READY TO PLAY MUSIC THAT MOVED BEYOND THE DANCE HALLS AND JAZZ CLUBS.

COMPOSER AND ARRANGER CHICO O’FARRILL WAS READY TO DELIVER. HE HAD COME TO NEW YORK FROM CUBA, WHERE HE GREW UP ON TRADITIONAL DANCE RHYTHMS. HE ALSO HAD A PASSION FOR JAZZ AND WAS NOW WRITING CHARTS FOR STAN KENTON AND BENNY GOODMAN.

BUT ARRANGER RAY SANTOS ALSO HEARS O’FARRILL’S YEARS OF FORMAL CLASSICAL TRAINING.

 

 

16) Vox: Ray Santos

"You can tell by his technique that he’s very; heavy into classical music. You can hear a little Debussy here, a little Stravinsky there, but he listens, yeah."

 

 

 

 

17) Bradley:

YOU CAN HEAR THIS CLASSICAL INFLUENCE IN O’FARRILL’S FIRST MAJOR WORK FOR MACHITO, "THE AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ SUITE." IT IS A LONG PIECE WHERE EACH MOVEMENT IS BASED ON A DIFFERENT AFRO-CUBAN DANCE RHYTHM. BUT IT USES THEME AND VARIATION LIKE CLASSICAL MUSIC, AND A HARMONIC APPROACH COMMON TO JAZZ MUSICIANS OF THE TIME.

 

18) Vox: Ray Santos

"Stravinsky was quite in vogue among the jazz players// in the late 40's and all throughout the 50's. They loved his harmonies. And the same thing with Ravel and Debussy --- beautiful harmonies. And can get quite exciting, you know, build the tension, and relax the tension//, which is the meat and potatos of our music --- that tension and relaxation.// And when you fit all that stuff into the clave and Afro-Cuban percussion, you get a new kind of music, there."

 

19) Bradley:

FIFTY YEARS AFTER WRITING THIS PIECE, CHICO O’FARRILL TAKES IT TO THE CONCERT HALL. O’FARRILL CONDUCTS THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA ON THE "AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ SUITE."

 

20) Music: Afro-Cuban Jazz Suite, 9/12/98, 13:42

 

 

 

21) Bradley:

CHICO O’FARRILL CONDUCTED THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA ON HIS "AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ SUITE." MARCUS PRINTUP WAS ON TRUMPET, TED NASH PLAYED FLUTE, WITH RON WESTRAY ON TROMBONE, AND THE PERCUSSION SECTION OF STEVE BERRIOS ON TIMBALES, JOSEPH GONZALEZ ON BONGOS AND ROLAND GUERRERO ON CONGAS.

 

22) Music: Peanut Vendor, 9/12/98 concert

 

23) Bradley:

MAJOR SUPPORT FOR JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER IS PROVIDED BY

DISCOVER CARD. IT PAYS TO DISCOVER.

ADDITIONAL SUPPORT COMES FROM NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO MEMBER STATIONS AND N-P-R, WHOSE CONTRIBUTORS INCLUDE: THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS AND THE LILA WALLACE-READER'S DIGEST FUND, HELPING PEOPLE TO MAKE THE ARTS AND CULTURE AN ACTIVE PART OF THEIR EVERYDAY LIVES. WE ALSO RECEIVE PRODUCTION FUNDS FROM THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING.

FOR MORE ABOUT MACHITO, CHICO O’FARRILL, RAY SANTOS, AND AFRO-CUBAN MUSIC, CHECK OUR WEBSITE AT YOU CAN E-MAIL TO , OR WRITE TO US AT JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER, NEW YORK CITY 10023.

 

23) Bradley: (continued)

YOU'RE LISTENING TO JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER. I'M ED BRADLEY.

(Midbreak :10)

BY 1954, AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ WAS A WELL ESTABLISHED STYLE. MACHITO AND HIS AFRO-CUBANS HAD BECOME A FIXTURE IN THE JAZZ CLUBS, AND THE ROSTER OF JAZZ MUSICIANS VENTURING INTO AFRO-CUBAN RHYTHMS CONTINUED TO GROW.

THAT’S WHEN JAZZ IMPRESARIO NORMAN GRANZ AGAIN ENLISTED ARRANGER CHICO O’FARRILL. IT WAS SIX YEARS SINCE THE SUCCESS OF "THE AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ SUITE," AND O’FARRILL HAD CONTINUED TO WRITE FOR MACHITO AND OTHER BIG BANDS.

THIS TIME, HE GOT TO WRITE FOR ONE OF HIS IDOLS, DIZZY GILLESPIE.

O’FARRILL CREATED A NEW SUITE BASED ON "MANTECA," WRITTEN BY DIZZY GILLESPIE WITH CHANO POZO AND WALTER GIL FULLER.

THE ORIGINAL 1954 RECORDING OF THIS SUITE FEATURED GILLESPIE’S BIG BAND WITH MACHITO’S RHYTHM SECTION CONDUCTED BY CHICO O’FARRILL.

THIS IS THE FIRST PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPLETE WORK SINCE THEN --- AT ALICE TULLY HALL, CHICO O’FARRILL CONDUCTS THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA AND ITS GUEST PERCUSSION SECTION ON THE FIRST MOVEMENT OF THE "MANTECA SUITE" --- "MANTECA THEME."

 

24) Music: Manteca Theme, 9/12/98 concert, first movement 4:32

25) Bradley:

THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA WITH "MANTECA THEME," ARRANGED AND CONDUCTED BY CHICO O’FARRILL.

 

 

26) Vox: Ray Santos

"He’s got fantastic technique. He can take// (sings Manteca riff) a riff like that and build a whole suite on it."

 

 

27) Bradley:

ARRANGER AND MACHITO BAND ALUMNUS RAY SANTOS.

 

28) Vox: Ray Santos (continued)

"Plus the bridge (sings bridge) and get a whole movement on just that bridge that Diz and Walter Fuller got on Manteca. Chano’s riffs, also."

 

 

29) Bradley:

THE FIRST SECTION OF CHICO O’FARRILL’S SUITE WAS A RENDITION OF THE MANTECA THEME. THE NEXT TWO SECTIONS ARE VARIATIONS ON THAT MELODY.

IN THE SECOND MOVEMENT, O’FARRILL KEEPS THE RHYTHMS THE SAME, BUT REVERSES THE ORDER OF THE NOTES. HE THEN EXPANDS THE MIDDLE SECTION OF THE SONG INTO A FULL BALLAD.

 

29) Bradley: (Continued)

THE THIRD MOVEMENT GETS TRICKY, THOUGH. O’FARRILL CHANGES THE GROOVE AND REVERSES THE RHYTHMS. THE NOTES ARE IN THE ORIGINAL ORDER, BUT WITH AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT EFFECT.

"CONTRASTE" AND "JUNGLA"[JUNN-gluh] ARE MOVEMENTS TWO AND THREE OF O’FARRILL’S "MANTECA SUITE."

 

30) Music: "Contraste" and "Jungla", 9/12/98 concert, from "Manteca Suite," 2:46 + 4:21

 

31) Bradley:

"CONTRASTE" AND "JUNGLA" FROM THE "MANTECA SUITE." CHICO O’FARRILL CONDUCTING THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA AT ALICE TULLY HALL.

AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ IS BASED ON LAYERS OF RHYTHM. SO TIMBALES, CONGAS AND BONGOS WERE BROUGHT IN FOR THIS CONCERT TO AUGMENT THE SOUND OF THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA.

THE ORIGINAL "MANTECA SUITE" WAS WRITTEN FOR MACHITO’S PERCUSSION SECTION. AND STEVE BERRIOS, WHO HAS PLAYED PERCUSSION IN THE BANDS OF MONGO SANTAMARIA AND TITO PUENTE, HELPED BRING THE LATIN RHYTHM AND THE ORCHESTRA TOGETHER.

 

32) Vox: Steve Berrios

"I think it was a good learning experience on my part and the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra’s part, because they didn’t know that music.// (skip a bit) I was a taskmaster. I was called in to teach them the feeling of that music. It involved breaking down the different phrasing of each individual section. They were approaching it like they were playing Duke Ellington’s music or Count Basie’s music, which is great, but it has another little twist playing Machito’s music or Chico O’Farrill’s music."

 

 

33) Bradley:

AFTER PLAYING CHICO O’FARRILL’S UNORTHODOX VERSION OF "MANTECA," THE ORCHESTRA REACHED A MOVEMENT OF THE SUITE THAT WAS MORE FAMILIAR. IN THE RUMBA FINALE, O’FARRILL PENNED A BIG BAND SWING CHART THE WAY HE DID FOR BASIE, KENTON AND GOODMAN.

THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA LETS LOOSE ON THE MANTECA SUITE’S "RUMBA FINALE, PART ONE."

 

34) Music: Rumba Finale, Part I, 9/12/98 concert, from "Manteca Suite," 7:11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35) Bradley:

"RUMBA FINALE, PART ONE" FROM THE "MANTECA SUITE," THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA FEATURING WYNTON MARSALIS ON TRUMPET AND WALTER BLANDING, JR. ON TENOR. ARRANGED AND CONDUCTED BY CHICO O’FARRILL.

WE’LL CLOSE OUT OUR PROGRAM WITH "CON ALMA." IT’S ANOTHER OF DIZZY GILLESPIE’S AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ VENTURES --- A BALLAD MEANT TO BE PLAYED LIKE ITS NAME, "WITH SOUL." IN IT, WE CAN ALSO HEAR HOW A WHOLE GENERATION OF MUSICIANS ARE KEEPING THE AFRO-CUBAN JAZZ OF DIZZY, CHICO AND MACHITO FRESH.

AT ALICE TULLY HALL, WYNTON MARSALIS AND ERIC LEWIS LEAD THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA WITH LANGOROUS SOLOS ON "CON ALMA."

 

36) Music: Con Alma, 9/12/98 concert 5:42 play under credits

 

37) Bradley:

WYNTON MARSALIS ON TRUMPET AND ERIC LEWIS ON PIANO WITH DIZZY GILLESPIE’S "CON ALMA."

THE LINCOLN CENTER JAZZ ORCHESTRA FEATURED SPECIAL GUESTS ARTURO O’FARRILL JR. ON PIANO, STEVE BERRIOS ON TIMBALES, JOSEPH GONZALEZ ON BONGOS, AND ROLAND GUERRERO ON CONGAS, WYNTON MARSALIS, MARCUS PRINTUP, RYAN KISOR AND SENECA BLACK ON TRUMPETS; WAYNE GOODMAN, RON WESTRAY AND WYCLIFFE GORDON ON TROMBONES; VICTOR GOINES, TED NASH, WESS ANDERSON, WALTER BLANDING, JR. AND JOE TEMPERLEY ON REEDS; ERIC LEWIS ON PIANO; CARLOS HENRIQUEZ ON BASS; AND HERLIN RILEY WAS THE DRUMMER.

THE CONDUCTORS WERE RAY SANTOS AND CHICO O’FARRILL.

JAZZ FROM LINCOLN CENTER IS PRODUCED BY JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER AND MURRAY STREET ENTERPRISE IN NEW YORK. THE PROGRAM WAS WRITTEN BY ASSOCIATE PRODUCER PAUL CHUFFO AND EDITED BY LAUREN KRENZEL. OUR SENIOR PRODUCER IS STEVE RATHE.

THE CONCERT RECORDINGS WERE MADE BY SANDRA PALMER GRASSI WITH REMOTE FACILITIES PROVIDED BY EFFANEL MUSIC.

OUR POST PRODUCTION ENGINEER IS DAVID GOREN AT STEPHEN ERICKSON’S.

{alt} OUR POST PRODUCTION ENGINEER IS STEPHEN ERICKSON.

 

 

37) Bradley: (Continued)

THE PRODUCTION TEAM INCLUDES GWENDOLYN DEAN, ROB GRADER, ANDREW ROSENBLUM, AND TRACEY PULLO.

THANKS ALSO TO THE JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER PRODUCTION STAFF, THE RADIO FOUNDATION, EFFANEL MUSIC AND THE STAGE CREW AT ALICE TULLY HALL.

THE EXECUTIVE PRODUCER AND DIRECTOR OF JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER IS ROB GIBSON. THE ARTISTIC DIRECTOR IS WYNTON MARSALIS.

I’M ED BRADLEY. THIS IS NPR, NATIONAL PUBLIC RADIO.

 

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